Documentation for “Zerocat Chipflasher”
Generated on: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 16:31:22 +0200
Repository: git://zerocat.org/zerocat/projects/chipflasher
Board: board-v2.0.0-1346-38db0bcf4
Version: v2.0.4-0-38db0bcf4
Branch: master

Zerocat Chipflasher

Flash free firmware, kick the Management Engine.

../images/IMG_1828.JPG

Chipflasher v2, successor of Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’

Copyright (C) 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 Kai Mertens kmx@posteo.net
Copyright (C) 2016 kai kmx@posteo.net
Copyright (C) 2016 rekado rekado@elephly.net
Copyright (C) 2017 tomás zerolo tomas@tuxteam.de

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Section #../doc/AUTHORS.md

AUTHORS

The initial project was started by Kai Mertens in 2015, as a private project.
It was renamed and continued in 2016, but still kept private.

Authors of the initial code and documentation are:

The project was split and again renamed to the current version in 2016, and turned public. See tag repo-root-info for details.

Authors of Zerocat Chipflasher are now listed according to git log output.
See copyright notices on the title page.

Section #../doc/README.md

README

Project Goal

The goal of Zerocat Chipflasher is to provide an electronic device for the purpose of firmware replacement, fully hackable and of a free design, even down to chip level.

When it comes to flash a Coreboot or Libreboot compatible machine, the Zerocat Chipflasher is the right tool to use:

... and it uses the Parallax P8X32A free-design microcontroller!

Prerequisites

It is assumed that you are running a GNU/Linux-libre operating system. We recommend to run GNU Guix System – alternatively, install the GNU Guix package manager.

Your computer has an RS232 port available and your user account is priviledged to access the port, e.g: It is member of the dialout group.

Furthermore, your system should have one or two USB ports available in order to power the flasher device. Otherwise, you will have to use an external power adapter, providing 5 to 6VDC at 1 Ampère.

Get the Sources

Use Git to clone the project’s sources:

    $ git clone git://zerocat.org/zerocat/projects/chipflasher

Change into the project’s documentation folder:

    $ cd chipflasher/doc/

Study this README.md to get started:

    $ cat ../doc/README.md

Paths

All paths within the documentation are relative to the location of the documentation source files, which are located in this project’s doc/ folder.

Tags

Versions are tagged according to the following pattern:

    v<major>.<minor>.<revision>

A tag should be annotated with related change log entries.

The first tag should be: v0.0.0

To checkout a version tag, run:

    git checkout vx.x.x

However, this should be optional.
Using the tip of branch master should be just fine.

Project’s Guix Profiles

Use GNU Make to create dedicated profiles, and up-to-date profile generations. This allows you to match your environments to the ones used by Zerocat, thus yielding for bit-identical results:

    $ make -C ../hardware/guix pull
    $ make -C ../guix pull1

To remove this project’s handy guix profiles, type:

    $ make -C ../hardware/guix clean
    $ make -C ../guix clean

This will remove symlinks only. If you want to remove the profiles from your system, run the GNU Guix Garbage Collector.

To list all available targets, type:

    $ make -C ../hardware/guix help
    $ make -C ../guix help

Make Hardware Design Files

To generate hardware design files for the documentation, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../../hardware" | make -C ../hardware/guix environment

To remove them, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../../hardware clean" | make -C ../hardware/guix environment

Make Documentation

To build the documentation, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../doc" | make -C ../guix environment1

To clean up, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../doc clean" | make -C ../guix environment1

Make Hardware Design Files and Documentation in One Go

To build the documentation in one go, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../../hardware" | make -C ../hardware/guix environment\
      && echo "make -C ../doc" | make -C ../guix environment1

To clean up in one go, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../../hardware clean" | make -C ../hardware/guix environment\
      && echo "make -C ../doc clean" | make -C ../guix environment1

Project Environment Setup

Checkout the profile generation, instantiate channels, create a pure shell that provides nothing but prerequisites:

    $ make -C ../guix environment1

To confirm that your project environment is properly set up, run:

    [env]$ make -C ../guix usage

Invocations of make to generate the documentation, compile the sources, etc., should be done from this project environment, only.

To restore the initial environment, later on, when you are done with this project, type:

    [env]$ exit

P8X32A Documents, Design Files and Application Notes

The Parallax P8X32A free-design microcontroller is well documented, let’s take a bunch of documents as a common starting point. See ../doc/Makefile for targets P1 and clean-P1. P1 can be used to get files downloaded, e.g.:

    $ echo "cd ../doc && make P1 && cd -" | make -C ../guix environment1

Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’ Documentation and Software

You can still build the original documentation and software of the former, RYF-certified Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’ device. Proceed like this:

  1. Checkout tip of branch master:

    $ git checkout master
    
  2. Set up old GNU Guix environment:

    $ make -C ../guix pull0
    $ make -C ../guix environment0
    
  3. Download Parallax’ libraries before checkout:

    [env]$ make -C ../firmware1/src setup-lib-parallaxinc
    
  4. Checkout at tag board-edition-1:

    [env]$ git checkout board-edition-1
    
  5. Modify macros to match the environment:

    [env]$ sed -i -r\
      -e'/^SHELL/cSHELL := /bin/sh'\
      -e'/^PATH_GNUGUIX/cPATH_GNUGUIX = \$(shell echo \"\$\$GUIX_ENVIRONMENT\"/;)'\
      -e'/^PATH_SIMPLELIBS_MASTER/{; s,.\(PATH_PARALLAX\),../../firmware1/src/parallaxinc/,; s,-master,,; };'\
        ../firmware/src/{Makefile,Startfile.mk}
    
  6. Generate the documentation:

    [env]$ touch ../doc/doxygen-resources/{header,footer}.html
    [env]$ make -C ../doc
    
  7. Build firmware and utility:

    [env]$ make -C ../firmware/src
    
  8. Operate Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’, i.e.:

    [env]$ make -C ../firmware/src -f Startfile.mk
    ...
    ...
    
  9. Clean up, return back to tip of branch master, leave environment:

    [env]$ make -C ../firmware/src cleanall
    [env]$ make -C ../doc clean
    [env]$ git stash push
    [env]$ git stash clear
    [env]$ git checkout master
    [env]$ exit
    
Section #../doc/CONTRIBUTING.md

Contributing

Documentation Files

Documentation source files are written in markdown syntax. They should carry their individual copyright and license notices right below the title giving headline, e.g.:

    <Title-of-Document>
    ===================

    Copyright (C) <Year>  <Name-of-Author> <Email-Address>  

    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
    Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
    "GNU Free Documentation License".

    <Other-Headline>
    ----------------

    ...content...

The generated documentation carries a license notice right at top on its title page, with copyright statements generated from git log output.

Sections of the generated documentation are build from selected markdown source files, with their individual copyright and license notice stripped.

In order to enrich the generated documentation ...

... and adapt ../doc/Makefile to produce nice output.

In case more tools are needed, don't forget to update ../guix/manifest0.scm.

Images

To make your image look nice within the documentation, select a landscape layout of 16:9 aspect ratio.

Use ImageMagick to prepare your image, e.g.:

If your image is big, reduce it to a maximal width of 2000 pixel:

    mogrify -resize 2000x <image>

Please clean image files from metadata, before committing, i.e.:

    mogrify -strip <image>

If you embed your image into a markdown documentation file, use this syntax:

   ![<path/to/image>][]

   [<path/to/image>]:     <path/to/image>     "title message"

or alternatly:

   ![<path/to/image>][my-image-shortcut]

   [my-image-shortcut]:   <path/to/image>     "title message"

These patterns will guarantee that <img> tags will have their src, alt and title attributes properly set within the html output.

Code Files

Please use this license header for code source files:

    Zerocat Chipflasher --- Flash free firmware, kick the Management Engine.

    Copyright (C) <Year>  <Name-of-Author> <Email-Address>

    This file is part of Zerocat Chipflasher.

    Zerocat Chipflasher is free software: you can redistribute it
    and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
    License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either
    version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
    version.

    Zerocat Chipflasher is distributed in the hope that it will be
    useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
    warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with Zerocat Chipflasher.
    If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Shell Scripts

If you intend to write shell scripts, use this skeleton to make them work for GNU Guix:

    #!/bin/sh

    # Re-exec if we are not using Bash or are using Bash in POSIX mode.
    if [ -z "$BASH" ] || [ "$BASH" = "/bin/sh" ]; then
      bash=`command -v bash`
      if [ -z "$bash" ]; then
        echo "Couldn't find Bash, sorry!"
        exit 1
      else
        exec "$bash" "$0" "$@"
      fi
    fi

    # We're using Bash now.
    set -o errexit
    set -o nounset
    set -o pipefail

    # Your code goes here ...

ChangeLog

Update ../doc/CHANGES.md and list your contributions.

You can use git shortlog to get a starting point for your edit.

Section #../doc/COPYING.md

Copying

Zerocat Chipflasher ships copyrighted work.
See #../doc/AUTHORS.md for a list of people that have contributed.

Zerocat Chipflasher is free software. It makes use of free software licenses as recognized by Free Software Foundation (FSF), and should be freely distributable:

Files located in folder hardware/, if available, describe hardware of a free design, licensed under:

Authorship, copyright and license information may be provided in more detail on a per-folder and/or per-file basis. Check the sources.

Please report a bug if you find the distribution hindered.
See Zerocat Website for contact information.

Section #../doc/CHANGES.md

CHANGES

Scope

Since project version v2.0.0, changes are tracked within this file, #../doc/CHANGES.md.
For changes, introduced by version v2.0.0 and lower, see #../doc/version-history.md.

Changes introduced to hardware design files are tracked in file ../hardware/CHANGES.md.
For changes, introduced by version board-v2.0.0 and lower, see #../doc/board-version-history.md.

Log

NOTICE: Anyone modifying the project should provide brief information about the modifications, including the date they were made. Information should be added but never removed from this file. Licensees should provide a brief entry with a date and the nature of the modification for each change. Please use markdown syntax!

Section #../doc/CREDITS.md

CREDITS

Development of Zerocat’s “Chipflasher v2” has been made possible by financial means of the NGI0 PET Fund, a fund dedicated to Privacy and Trust Enhancing technologies, financially supported by the European Commission’s Next Generation Internet programme. Furthermore, I received great support from Michiel Leenaars and the NLnet Foundation, as well as from OSE-Germany e.V. and associated fellows.

Dear guys, I am very grateful to have met your friendly companionship and encouragement, thank you! --- Kai Mertens

Section #../doc/welcome.md

Welcome!

Get Started

Have fun with these sources!
Everyone should flash a free BIOS at least once in his lifetime ;-)
It is an exciting experience.

If you are in a hurry to apply Coreboot or Libreboot on your machine, check #../doc/targets.md to see if it is supported by kick, the first firmware. In addition, give kick2 and flashrom a try, as flashrom has a huge database of chips.

To generate free firmware ROMs suitable for flashing, you might as well consider to use Zerocat Coreboot Machines.

NOTE: Changes related to hardware and software are tracked in separate files:

NOTE: Care has been taken to keep the software compatible with the RYF-certified Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’ (PCB: board-v1.1.0), so please feel free to upgrade its firmware.

The Circuit Board

The circuit board is the essential part of the flasher device. This documentation should help you to build your own PCB or breadboard circuit. Sources and CERN-OHL-S v2 license files are located in folder ../hardware/.

See #../doc/chipflasher.md to get started.
See #../kit-user-guide/doc/kit-user-guide.md to get help for the assembly process.

The Host Utility – connect

Utility connect is part of this project, for the board’s firmware needs someone to talk to. The capabilities of a terminal, set up by propeller-load, are not sufficient. Therefore, sample code had been used to start building up connect. Now it is a small program that suits our needs, its code is located in folder ../host/src/.

The utility is documented as part of this main documentation.

The Board’s First Firmware – kick

The first firmware of the flasher board is called kick; its source files are located in folder ../firmware1/src/. This firmware is able to communicate with connect.

See #../firmware1/doc/README.md for its documentation.

The Board’s Second Firmware – kick2

The second firmware of the flasher board is called kick2; its source files are located in folder ../firmware2/src/. This firmware is able to communicate with connect and flashrom.

See #../firmware2/doc/README.md for its documentation.

Device Operation with kick or kick2

Related sections and files are:

Section #../doc/chipflasher.md

Chipflasher

../images/IMG_1858.JPG

Chipflasher “v2” and Accessories

Hardware of a free Design

Hardware Design Sources are licensed under CERN Open Hardware Licence Version 2 – Strongly Reciprocal, or any later version.

See CERN-OHL-S v2 User Guide to get guidelines on how to use these hardware designs for your own projects.

The Zerocat Chipflasher aims to be free-design as much as possible, that’s why it relies on the Parallax Propeller 1 microcontroller. In 2014, the chip design files of this controller have been released under GPLv3, by Parallax.

Hardware Status

The PCB board-v2.0.0 as of commit fa7ba6995 has been tested successfully.

PCBs of other commits are UNTESTED!

See #../doc/board-version-history.md and ../hardware/CHANGES.md to track changes

Main Components

../hardware/artwork/board-label.svg.png

Device Label

../hardware/pcb/board.pcb.top.png

PCB (top view)

../hardware/pcb/board.pcb.bottom.png

PCB (bottom view)

Onboard Connectors, Switches and LEDs

../images/IMG_1816.JPG

PCB “board-v2.0.0”, top view

Source Files

Bill of Material

First Series

../images/IMG_1841.JPG

Chipflasher “v2”, first series

In October 2022, a set of first five devices is assembled:

Exported PDFs

PDFs, generated from source files via ../hardware/Makefile:

../hardware/artwork/board-label.svg.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page01.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page02.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page03.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page04.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page05.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page06.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page07.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page08.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page09.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page10.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page11.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page12.sch.pdf
../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page13.sch.pdf

Exported Images of Circuit Schematics

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page01.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 1(13): Controller with RAM, of a free Design

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page02.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 2(13): Power Input

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page03.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 3(13): Voltage Regulators

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page04.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 4(13): SPI

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page05.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 5(13): Program Status LEDs

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page06.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 6(13): RS232 Pinheader

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page07.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 7(13): Serial EEPROM (optional)

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page08.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 8(13): Vcc_SPI Voltage Monitor

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page09.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 9(13): Power Switch

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page10.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 10(13): Y-USB Power Cable

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page11.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 11(13): RS232 Cable

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page12.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 12(13): SPI Cable

../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page13.sch.png

Board Circuit Schematic, Page 13(13): SPI Flash Pinouts

Section #../doc/quick-start.md

Quick Start

Setup with Non-standard Y-USB Power Cable

                                   +----------------+
    +--------------+               | '''''' <-DIPSW |            +·············+
    | Host, i.e.   |               | 654321         |            :             :
    |  X60/T400    |===++==+5VDC==>|                |            +---------+   :
    |  + Docking   |  //           | Chipflasher v2 |==+3.3VDC==>| SPI     |   :
    |              |=++            |                |<---SPI-/6->|  Chip   |   :
    | Utility:     |               |      LED D4: o |            +---------+   :
    | `connect' or |<--RS232-/5--->|                |            : Systemboard :
    | `flashrom'   |               | Firmware:      |            : without     :
    +--------------+               |  `kick2'       |            : Battery     :
                                   |                |            : nor Power   :
                                   |      LED D5: o |            :             :
                                   +----------------+            +·············+

Setup with External Power Adapter

        +----------------------------+
        |   External Power Device    |
        |      5-6VDC @ 1000mA       |
        | 5.5/2.1mm barrel jack plug |
        +----------------------------+
                       ||
                       ||          +----------------+
    +--------------+   ||          | '''''' <-DIPSW |            +·············+
    | Host, i.e.   |   ||          | 654321         |            :             :
    |  X60/T400    |   \\==+5VDC==>|                |            +---------+   :
    |  + Docking   |               | Chipflasher v2 |==+3.3VDC==>| SPI     |   :
    |              |               |                |<---SPI-/6->|  Chip   |   :
    | Utility:     |               |      LED D4: o |            +---------+   :
    | `connect' or |<--RS232-/5--->|                |            : Systemboard :
    | `flashrom'   |               | Firmware:      |            : without     :
    +--------------+               |  `kick2'       |            : Battery     :
                                   |                |            : nor Power   :
                                   |      LED D5: o |            :             :
                                   +----------------+            +·············+

Firmware kick2/flashrom Configuration Table

On ‘board v2’, the onboard DIP switch block is honoured by kick2/flashrom upon start, only.
On ‘board v1’, parameters default to preset values.
In any case, file ../firmware2/src/Makefile can be used to customize configurations.

                                |  `kick2/flashrom`  |  `kick2/flashrom` on ‘board v2’                                   
                                |     ‘board v1’     |                                                                   
                                |--------------------|-------------------------------------------------------------------
    Function                    |  defaults          |  DIP Switch Nº    |  o = open, x = closed                         
    ----------------------------|--------------------|-------------------|-----------------------------------------------
    SPI Clock Driver Strength   |  50%               |  DIP Switch 1..2  |  oo = 25%, xo = 50%, ox = 75%, xx = 100%      
    SPI Mode 0 or 3             |  Mode 3            |  DIP Switch 3     |  o = Mode 3, x = Mode 0                       
    RS232 Baudrate              |  115200            |  DIP Switch 4     |  o = 115200, x = 57600, per Makefile = 38400  
    SPI Power Suspend           |  allow             |  DIP Switch 5     |  o = allow, x = inhibit                       
    SPI Power-up Pulse Type     |  repetitive        |  DIP Switch 6     |  o = one shot, x = repetitive

Firmware kick2/connect Configuration Table

Firmware kick2, interfacing connect, uses a fixed configuration.
However, RS232 baudrate setting can still be configured per Makefile.

                                |  `kick2/connect`
                                |-----------------------
    Function                    |  fixed configuration  
    ----------------------------|-----------------------
    SPI Clock Driver Strength   |  100%                 
    SPI Mode 0 or 3             |  Mode 3               
    RS232 Baudrate              |  115200               
    SPI Power Suspend           |  allow                
    SPI Power-up Pulse Type     |  repetitive

Firmware kick/connect Configuration Table

Firmware kick, interfacing connect, uses a fixed configuration.
However, RS232 baudrate setting can still be configured per Makefile.

                                |  `kick/connect`
                                |-----------------------
    Function                    |  fixed configuration  
    ----------------------------|-----------------------
    SPI Clock Driver Strength   |  100%                 
    SPI Mode 0 or 3             |  Mode 3               
    RS232 Baudrate              |  115200               
    SPI Power Suspend           |  allow                
    SPI Power-up Pulse Type     |  one shot

Hook Up and Start

To get you started, quickly:

  1. You are dealing with electrostatical sensitive devices, observe precautions!

  2. Hook up all cables to your device.

  3. Connect device to host’s RS232 port.

  4. Switch device on.

  5. Make sure LED D4 (SPI Status) is off, then attach SPI cable to target board or chip, if any. Your target must not be powered by battery or AC adapter. Unplug small coin battery, if any.

  6. To start quickly:

    1. To start, using connect, type:

          [env]$ make -C ../host/start default
      

      The flasher’s menu should appear on screen.

      Use a second terminal to set up guix environment as before, then type:

          [env]$ make -C ../host/start -f Workflow.mk help
      

      To get typical workflow information for a single chip read procedure, type:

          [env]$ make -C ../host/start -f Workflow.mk workflow-chip-read
      
    2. To start, using flashrom, type:

          [env]$ make -C ../host/start kick2-flashrom-115200-ram
          [env]$ make -C ../host/start flashrom-115200
      

      This performs a probe with flashrom, same as with:

          [env]$ flashrom -p serprog:dev=../host/start/tty_port_pointer:115200,spispeed=40M -V
      

      Adapt command line options for read, erase, write and verify operations according to your needs. Please note that flashrom resets SPI configuration registers without asking for user’s consent!

  7. Now process your data...

  8. Get folders and configuration cleaned:

        [env]$ make -C ../host/start clean
    
  9. To see more options, type:

        [env]$ make -C ../host/start help
    
  10. When done with your target, make sure LED D4 (SPI Status) is off, then detach SPI test clip.

  11. When done with the device, switch it off.

Section #../doc/software-tools.md

Software Tools

This is a short list of software tools which are required...

If GNU Guix is available or if you are on GNU Guix System, type

    $ guix environment --pure -m guix/manifest.scm

to create a shell environment with all prerequisites set up. In case anything fails, the manifest file provides guix channel information to ease replication of guix itself.

Note this project is developed on GNU Guix System, thus the most recent state of art might fail on Trisquel due to unsupported tool versions, e.g.:

Please consider to install the GNU Guix Package Manager on top of Trisquel.

Precondition

Generate the Documentation

Extra Tools for Device Operation

Optional Tools

Section #../doc/parallax-tools.md

Parallax’ Tools for the Propeller Microcontroller

Parallax provides a bunch of tools, i.e.:

“Simple Libraries” Library Folder v1.2.0-5-c4f9a3e

The “Simple Libraries” folder is required.

File ../firmware/src/Makefile offers a target to clone the Parallax Simple-Libraries repository, checked out at commit c4f9a3e273002ec5e6f8b1d1ab95c14cb1823e82:

    $ make setup-lib-parallax

The library folder will then be available as:

    ../firmware/src/parallaxinc/Simple-Libraries/Learn/Simple Libraries/

Subfolders are passed as arguments to propeller-elf-gcc.

More recent versions of this folder lead to bigger binaries and are not yet usable for the chipflasher firmware.

Tool Installation via GNU Guix

GNU Guix provides a very comfortable way to...

Please install the GNU Guix package manager on top of your system, if not already. The GNU Guix project recommends installation using the latest release binary, which can be downloaded here: http://www.gnu.org/software/guix/download/. The instructions are linked there too. Alternatly, run GNU Guix System.

Alternatives & Resources

“SimpleIDE 1.0 RC1” Binary Package

With this binary package, all tools are bundled together. The latest packaged release for GNU/Linux is 1.0 RC1 from 11-24-2014.

Until more recent source repositories of these tools will work, Parallax suggests to install this old binary package “SimpleIDE 1.0 RC1” as a fallback.

This package is too old for Trisquel 10.0.1, dependencies cannot be resolved :-/

Download

Please visit page SimpleIDE Software for Linux, which provides binary packages for both, 32 and 64 bit architectures.

For your convenience, we provide a shortcut to the ZIP file here:

    $ wget https://www.parallax.com/package/simpleide-software-for-linux-propeller-c/?wpdmdl=3349 \
        -O SimpleIDE-Software-for-Linux-Propeller-C-3349.zip
    $ unzip SimpleIDE-Software-for-Linux-Propeller-C-3349.zip

Former Linux Installation Instructions

For your convenience, we provide our backup of former installation instructions, that are known to work.

Related Source Repositories

Original repositories of the first bundle release (SimpleIDE 1.0 RC1):

New Source Repositories

These are newer repositories from David Betz.

Until these repositories will work, Parallax suggests to install the old binary package “SimpleIDE 1.0 RC1” as a fallback.

Section #../doc/targets.md

Targets

It makes a difference whether you attach a discrete SPI flash chip to the chipflasher or whether you connect a chip-in-situ, which is soldered onto a system board. In the latter case, you will have to test a real life condition - just developing according to chip’s datasheet is not sufficient. Please compare to: ../doc/power-profiles.md

This file lists chips and system boards that have been successfully tested.

TODO: For some chips, the block protection mechanism is not fully supported.

TODO: We focus on Standard-SPI. Dual-SPI or Quad-SPI is not implemented.

Single SPI Flash Chips

Please compare to: ../firmware/src/libkick/chipspec.c

16M-Byte

8M-Byte

4M-Byte

2M-Byte

512K-Byte

System Boards

Not Yet Supported

These laptops are of special interest, because they have the same CPU-Chipset combination (Core Duo or Core2Duo and i945 Northbrigde) as the ThinkPad X60, which is known to lack the Manageability Engine completely. Unfortunately, these machines are not yet supported by coreboot.

Please compare to: https://www.coreboot.org/Laptop

Section #../doc/data-transfer.md

Data Transfer

General Overview

The chipflasher’s pair of programs uses the files chip2file.txt and file2chip.txt to store and read chip data. When invocing connect, you can pass alternative filenames, of course. Both files are processed on a line by line basis. Each line is embedded into a pair of STX/ETX characters which are stripped before the line data is stored on disk or in the chip.

S-Record Program Collection

The chipflasher’s data formats intend to be compatible with srecord, the famous free software program collection by Peter Miller.

Some first sources of information are:

The srecord program collection supports a variety of data formats like binary, hexdump and the Motorola S-Record which is the default.

Supported Data Formats

The chipflasher menu offers the following line formats, which are accessible through “t: toggle format”:

Verification of initial Readouts

# create a backup of first readout
$ cp chip2file.txt backup.txt

# diff with second readout
$ diff backup.txt chip2file.txt

Create a Binary from the Chipflasher’s Readout

This is useful if you need to extract binary blobs in order to create a new boot.rom with coreboot.

“S-Record”

# Convert a Motorola S-Record into a complete map of your target chip.
# Use 0x800000 for 8MB chip sizes, 0x400000 for 4MB chip sizes, etc.
$ srec_cat chip2file.txt -fill 0xff 0x000000 0x800000 -o chip2file.bin -raw

“Hex-Dump”

# Convert a Hex-Dump into a complete map of your target chip.
# Use 0x800000 for 8MB chip sizes, 0x400000 for 4MB chip sizes, etc.
$ srec_cat chip2file.txt -hexd -fill 0xff 0x000000 0x800000 -o chip2file.bin -raw

Prepare for Flashing

“S-Record”

# convert a binary boot rom file into Motorola S-Record
$ srec_cat boot.rom -raw -o boot.srec -obs 0x40 -esa 0x00

# strip 0xff bytes, but allow a runlen of 16 bytes
$ srec_cat boot.srec -uf 0xff 0x10 -o file2chip.txt -obs 0x40 -esa 0x00

# check file integrity before flashing
$ srec_info file2chip.txt

“Hex-Dump”

# convert a binary boot rom file into Hex-Dump
$ srec_cat boot.rom -raw -o boot.hexdump -hexd

# check file integrity
$ srec_info boot.hexdump -hexd

# prepare for flashing
$ cp boot.hexdump file2chip.txt

Verification

“S-Record”

# strip all 0xff bytes from the boot file
$ srec_cat boot.srec -uf 0xff -o test0 -do

# convert the chip readout into same layout
$ srec_cat file2chip.txt -uf 0xff -o test1 -do

# diff the files, their data lines should match
$ diff test0 test1

“Hex-Dump”

# check file integrity
$ srec_info chip2file.txt -hexd

# convert the boot file into Hex-Dump for comparison
$ srec_cat boot.hexdump -hexd -uf 0xff -o test0 -hexd

# convert the chip readout into Hex-Dump
$ srec_cat chip2file.txt -hexd -uf 0xff -o test1 -hexd

# diff the files, they should match
$ diff test0 test1

Generating Data for Pages, Blocks and the whole Chip

If you need to fill memory areas with constant values, please use menu option “I: flash file” with a prepared file2chip.txt file.

I.e., to fill page 3 of a paged 8MB SPI chip with 0xee, prepare your file2chip.txt like so:

$ srec_cat -gen 0x000300 0x0000400 --constant 0xee -o file2chip.txt

To use random data, type:

$ srec_cat -gen 0x000300 0x0000400 --random -o file2chip.txt

Please refer to

to get to know more about srecord’s data generators.

Note some simple consumer SPI chips do not provide a chip erase command. Their memory may be cleaned to 0xff by this method!

Section #../doc/power-profiles.md

Power Profiles

Preliminary Conclusion

Zerocat Chipflasher is designed for flashing BIOS chips reversely, that is: Power is applied to the chip, thus sending currents into the system board backwards.

Note that the power traces around the BIOS chip surely are not designed for the currents that some system boards (X60, T60) will draw. If we power the BIOS chip, some target system boards will draw much more current that would probably be needed to flash successfully. Therefor, we need kind of current limiting circuit. Examples: X60, T60

The only current limiting 'control' that we do have, is: - the Polyfuse - the capability of the regulator in use - the scope of the incoming power

The Polyfuse seems to get hot for currents above its hold current, thus already limiting the current. Higher currents make the device to shut down the board after a while, thus leaving a small time window where we can take action (i.e. T60).

This time window could be used multiple times if we allow the fuse to cool down in between. This is very annoying and makes that flashing procedure slow as we are flashing sector by sector, but note the main goal should be not to damage the target system board!

Unfortunately, the chip’s supply voltage of a T60 doesn't reach its minimal value of 2.7V with supply currents below 2 Ampères – bigger currents would probably destroy the board and doesn't seem to help anyway.

Therefore, we won't be able to flash a T60 safely within specs by driving power backwards into the sysboard :-(

However, when using a combination of an LD1117-3.3 (800mA) voltage regulator, 1000µF power capacitor and a Polyfuse RXEF075, we can flash and read the T60 in one go with a chip supply voltage around 2.5V, which is not too bad!

We should be able to boot coreboot and then flash a second time from user space, within specs.

TODO: Let’s try Peter Stuge’s method as well.

TODO: Monitor the overall current or Polyfuse heat or even better add a dedicated current limiting circuit for the SPI Bus.

Standard Setup

Voltage across PowerShunt 0.025R +-1% during read operation

The power shunt in board-dev.sch allows us to monitor the overall return current.

    Current = Voltage across Power Shunt / Power Shunt’s Resistor Value

If not otherwise noted, the CE# pull-up is adjusted to its maximal value (245Ohms).

NOTE: Note that the selected Polyfuse RXEF075 is getting hot beyond 0.019V and would trip immediatly at 0.038V (1500mA). However, the voltage regulator in use is not capable of supplying more than 1000mA.

USB Power Specs

As we are using USB ports as unclassified devices, we are not allowed to draw more than 100mA per port (200mA in total) if we want to stay within official USB specs. Thus the chipflasher needs to be self-powered through an external power supply for targets that take more current.

However, if we don't care about official USB specs, using two USB ports with a non-standard Y-USB-Cable works just fine as well on a ThinkPad X60.

X60-Docking

This docking station seems to have very robust USB-Ports which can deliver up to 2.2Amps before a crowbar protection gets active. Then they are dead until you reboot after a while.

Section #../doc/RS232-cable-pinouts.md

RS232 Cable Pinouts

These RS232 data cables have been used during development. Their pinouts are provided here in the hope they will be useful.

Number 1) and 2) seem to be the best, for they have proper grounding of GND and Protective GND. Usual length of each cable is about 100cm.

All pin names reflect their function from the host’s point of view (DTE pin labels). See chipflasher-page11.sch or chipflasher-page11.sch.png for more details.

Pin Functions and Zerocat Connect Usage

    DTE Function        | DTE pin label | DTE pin | DCE pin | Zerocat Connect Usage (Host)
    ------------        | ------------- | ------- | ------- | ----------------------------
    Carrier Detect      | CD            | 1       | 1       | not used
    Data Set Ready      | DSR           | 6       | 2       | not used
    Receive Data        | RXD           | 2       | 3       | receive data
    Request To Send     | RTS           | 7       | 4       | alternative reset line
    Transmit Data       | TXD           | 3       | 5       | transmit data
    Clear To Send       | CTS           | 8       | 6       | not used
    Data Terminal Ready | DTR           | 4       | 7       | default reset line
    Ring Indicator      | RI            | 9       | 8       | not used
    Ground              | GND           | 5       | 9       | gnd, power return

1) Cable with 9 Wires and Shield

    DTE pin label               | DTE pin | colour | DCE pin
    -------------               | ------- | ------ | -------
    CD                          | 1       | brown  | 1
    DSR                         | 6       | grey   | 2
    RXD                         | 2       | blue   | 3
    RTS                         | 7       | green  | 4
    TXD                         | 3       | red    | 5
    CTS                         | 8       | yellow | 6
    DTR                         | 4       | violet | 7
    RI                          | 9       | orange | 8
    GND                         | 5       | black  | 9
    PGND                        | 5       | shield |

2) Keyboard Cable with 4 Wires and Shield

    DTE pin label               | DTE pin | colour | DCE pin
    -------------               | ------- | ------ | -------
    RXD                         | 2       | white  | 3
    TXD                         | 3       | red    | 5
    DTR                         | 4       | green  | 7
    GND                         | 5       | yellow | 9
    PGND                        | 5       | shield |

3) Mouse Cable with 5 Wires

    DTE pin label | DTE pin | colour | DCE pin
    ------------- | ------- | ------ | -------
    RXD           | 2       | brown  | 3
    RTS           | 7       | white  | 4
    TXD           | 3       | orange | 5
    DTR           | 4       | green  | 7
    GND           | 5       | blue   | 9

4) Mouse Cable with 6 Wires

    DTE pin label | DTE pin | colour | DCE pin
    ------------- | ------- | ------ | -------
    DSR           | 6       | white  | 2
    RXD           | 2       | black  | 3
    RTS           | 7       | yellow | 4
    TXD           | 3       | brown  | 5
    DTR           | 4       | red    | 7
    GND           | 5       | orange | 9
Section #../doc/version-history.md

Version History

This history gives you a version overview of the chipflasher firmware, software and documentation – in contrast to its hardware, which is represented by files under the ../hardware folder. To see the version history of the hardware, please check #../doc/board-version-history.md instead.

Version Scheme

    v<major>.<minor>.<revision>[-<number-of-new-commits>-<commit-hash>]

NOTE: Tags are using the first three numbers only, i.e. v0.1.0.

A fully qualified version description thus might look like this:

    v0.4.10-79-7ccc6034

v2.0.0

v0.7.0

v0.6.9

v0.6.8

This version takes advantage from updated files under ../hardware/, see ../doc/board-version-history.md.

v0.6.7

v0.6.6

Branch firmware2-wip has been merged into master.

As a result, the second firmware approach called kick2 is available in ../firmware2/src/, whereas the default firmware called kick is offered in ../firmware/src/ just as before.

Both programs are configured to start with an interface to connect, this project’s own host utility.

Follow advices in ../doc/README.md to build the complete documentation.

If interested in trying kick2 with its interface to flashrom, checkout branch flashrom-interface and see what has been achieved.

v0.6.5

v0.6.4

v0.6.3

v0.6.2

v0.6.1

v0.6.0

v0.5.0

v0.4.10

This version is ready to be run on GNU Guix System.

v0.4.9

v0.4.8

v0.4.7

v0.4.6

v0.4.5

v0.4.4

NOTE: This version works best with board versions board-edition-1 and board-v1.2.0.

v0.4.3

v0.4.2

v0.4.1

v0.4.0

This version works best in conjunction with board version board-edition-1, please compare to #../doc/board-version-history.md.

v0.3.0

This version works best in conjunction with board-v1.1.0.

Note that older boards may still be used, but the configuration file should be modified according to twisted pin functions.

v0.2.5

v0.2.4

Improve hardware documentation...

v0.2.3

Make the chipflasher repository freely distributable...

v0.2.2

Yep, this is a real version! It comes with a complete set of licenses.

v0.2.1.e87edec

Unfortunately, version v0.2.1 introduced a severe bug, due to exorbitant HUB-RAM usage. The system will hang. This commit reverts the commit that introduced that bug and reduces code size by 20 bytes. Now, flashing should work fine although we are still pretty much at the edge.

v0.2.1

Important bugfixes for chip readouts:

New features:

v0.2.0

This version must be used with board-v1.0.0 and later, however board-v1.0.5 is recommended due to its pnp MOSFET.

v0.1.0

This version may be used with all v0-boards (i.e. below board-v1.0.0), usage is probably limited to X60/X60s and X200/X200s sysboards.

Section #../doc/board-version-history.md

Board Version History

This history gives you a version overview of the chipflasher hardware in contrast to its firmware or host utility software. The chipflasher hardware is represented by files under the ../hardware folder, most prominently to mention the ../hardware/gschem/chipflasher-page??.sch circuit schematic files. To see the history of firmware, software and documentation, please check #../doc/version-history.md instead.

Board Version Scheme

    board-v<major>.<minor>.<revision>[-<number-of-new-commits>-<commit-hash>]

NOTE: Tags are using the first three numbers only, i.e. board-v0.1.0.

NOTE: There may be exceptions, which do not follow the Board Version Scheme.

Changes, not yet Tagged

board-v2.0.0

board-v1.3.3

board-v1.3.2

board-v1.3.1

board-v1.3.0

The PCB of this version still is fully compatible with board-v1.1.0 and board-edition-1. Set jumper across J4:2 and J4:3.

board-v1.2.4

board-v1.2.3

board-v1.2.2

We continue to use the unmodified PCB of tag board-v1.1.0.

board-v1.2.1

We continue to use the unmodified PCB of tag board-v1.1.0.

board-v1.2.0

Same as board-edition-1, but we resume the Board Version Scheme as described above. This helps us to avoid ambiguities from now on as the version board-edition-1 is RYF-Certified and must not be linked to any changed content. Note the front panel sticker has been updated accordingly.

We continue to use the unmodified PCB of tag board-v1.1.0.

board-edition-1

General info:

Upgraded comments in ../hardware/gschem/board.sch:

Device upgrades as drop-in replacements in ../hardware/gschem/board.sch allow us to access the sysboard of a ThinkPad T60 while access to a ThinkPad X60/X60s sysboard now works more reliable as well:

board-v1.1.3

board-v1.1.2

The file ../hardware/pcb/board.pcb has been reverted to version board-v1.1.0 which allows us to use already manufactured PCBs in conjunction with updated files and front-label version tags.

board-v1.1.1

board-v1.1.0

A second linear power regulator has been added, which separates the Propeller’s supply from that of the SPI bus. That way, the chipflasher is independend from power failure due to high inrush currents when the target sysboard is powered.

That allows as well to enable the Propeller’s built-in Brown-Out-Detection: Pins keep a well defined level even if the supply voltage is not certain, a very usual situation during power-off.

Furthermore, a simple overcurrent and overvoltage protection has been added right behind the USB power entry. A Polyfuse is used, which limits the maximal USB current to about 1000mA. Currents of up to 500mA are well in range, which is enough for all tested boards except the ThinkPad-X60s sysboard. However, the latter still can be flashed although current consumption is throttled to around 700mA by the Polyfuse. (Note that the related developer board (board-dev.sch) is equipped with a 0.025Ohms PowerShunt which facilitates overall current measurement.)

NOTE: This version ships with a first elaborated pcb layout file, which is untested by the time of writing.

WARNING: To ease pcb layout, two pins have been twisted, thus requiring the updated firmware version v0.3.0 (See #../doc/version-history.md for details.)

board-v1.0.5

The pnp transistor has been replaced by a pnp MOSFET, because when flashing the X220 the transistor gets too hot.

board-v1.0.4

Add standard SPI chip layout examples, which are handy to have available when connecting the SPI-Cable.

board-v1.0.3

Small bug fix: A junction had been misplaced.

board-v1.0.2

Generate new devices numbers, they will be used in the bill of materials (bom.md).

board-v1.0.1

Update SPI cable to new SPI connector layout.

WARNING: This should be regarded as a major hardware change! Upgrading your firmware is required!

board-v1.0.0

This board supports more sysboards.

This board requires a firmware update.

board-v0.4.0

Board with protection diodes across power regulator, in preparation for next board version.

board-v0.3.10

First Tandem-Workshop. Board with different SPI connector, uses 5x2 pinheader.

board-v0.3.0

Starts from RAM as well.

board-v0.2.0

Reset line is DTR or RTS (optional).

board-v0.1.8

First board that has been shipped for testing.

board-v0.1.0

board-v0.0.0

Initial board.

Section #../doc/chipflasher-first-prototype.md

Chipflasher First Prototype

Test Layout

The PCB layout that ships with the tag pcb-prototype on branch master has been milled into copper in order to prove suitability. However, using that file for production purposes is not recommended. Several fixes were necessary.

../images/pcb-prototype.pcb.png

worked PCB layout

Hardware Production Process

This is a short photo documentary of the hardware production process:

../images/IMG_7643.jpeg

PCB milling has just finished

The copper board has been milled during an introductory workshop in the FABLAB Berlin.

../images/IMG_7652.jpeg

PCB cleaned up

Cleaning the PCB is important, otherwise you will have to deal with dust located in the gap-routes when you want to apply clear varnish later.

../images/IMG_7663.jpeg

Soldering difficulties on component side

Sockets and parts with a big footprint should not to be soldered to top layer pads, this turns out to be very difficult and tricky. For example, to solder an variable resistor, you will need to use a vacuum pump while pressing the part firmly onto the surface. When done, you are lucky if the pins are still connected. And note that for some reason drilling was not always centric.

../images/IMG_7668.jpeg

How to solve soldering difficulties on component side

Top layer pads should be large, otherwise you will have to lever sockets or chips a bit in order to use their thin legs.

../images/IMG_7670.jpeg

Assemblage complete

When the board is fully populated, don't forget jumpers!
Apply a clear varnish over all, but cover important contacts.

Device in Action

../images/IMG_7736.jpeg

The PCB Prototype in action

It worked right from the start. What you can see here very well is the SPI-cable which uses distances for its wires, in order to prevent signal interferences. The target shown on the photo is a T500 motherboard.

Section #../doc/chipflasher-board-edition-1.md

Chipflasher ‘board-edition-1’

Handmade Example

../images/IMG_8527.jpg

Handmade Chipflasher with Accessories

Board Layout

    |<---            80mm                -->|

    +---------------------------------------+      ---
    | O                   ######          O |       ^
    |                     ######            |       |
    |  [X] Power Switch   ######      D1 o  |       |
    |                     ######            |       |
    |  o  LED Power       ######      D2 o  |
    -------+              ######            |
    : USB  |              ######      D3 o  |
    : Power|              ######            |
    -------+              ######            |
    |  o  SPI Power       ######            |
    |                     ######   _________|
    |  #######            ##/\##   |SPI-Bus |
    |  #######                     |        |
    |__________  Jumper            |  PLUG# |     100mm
    |RS232 DTE|  x DTR             |    GND |
    | Labels  |  x RST             |    WP# |
    |NC  | GND|  o RTS             |   MISO |
    |RI  | DTR|                    |    CE# |
    |CTS | TXD|           ___      |   MOSI |
    |RTS | RXD|           |R|      |   SCLK |
    |DSR | CD |           |e|      |  HOLD# |
    |_________|           |s|      |    VDD |
    |                     |i|      |________|
    |     ###             |s|    SPI LED o  |       |
    |     ###    ###      |t|               |       |
    |     ###    ###      |o|               |       |
    | O   ###    ###      |r|             O |       v
    +-------------------- |…|---------------+      ---
                           ^

First Devices with PCB

Some first devices where manufactured, checked out at tag board-edition-1 on branch master.

These devices have been certified to respect computer users’ freedoms by the Free Software Foundation in Boston, USA.

../images/IMG_8495.jpg

First Series with sponsored PCBs

Bug Fix

A non-critical bug can be fixed by soldering a short wire on the bottom side of the PCB:
One input pin was left floating by mistake, instead of tying it to ground level.

../images/IMG_9905.jpg

Manual Bug Fix on Bottom Side: Black Wire

Section #../doc/GNU-FDL.md

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

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If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

11. RELICENSING

"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

    Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
    Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with … Texts." line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Section #../doc/GNU-GPL.md

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.

Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

0. Definitions.

"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.

To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.

To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

1. Source Code.

The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work.

A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.

The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.

The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

2. Basic Permissions.

All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.

You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.

3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.

A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.

"Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

7. Additional Terms.

"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

8. Termination.

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

11. Patents.

A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

14. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

16. Limitation of Liability.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands \show w' and \show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.