Documentation for “Zerocat Flash Access”
Generated on: Sat, 15 Jul 2023 14:22:40 +0200
Repository: git://zerocat.org/zerocat/projects/zerocat-flash-access
Version: v0.4.3-0-3c0d96e
Branch: master

Zerocat Flash Access

Interfacing BIOS Chips in Hardware Protection Mode

../images/t430/flash_access_header.jpg

T430 flashing, no clip required.

Copyright (C) 2021, 2022, 2023 Kai Mertens kmx@posteo.net
Copyright (C) 2022 Jorgo Triantafilidis jorgo_zc@posteo.de

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Section #../doc/README.md

README

Project Goal

The goal of Zerocat Flash Access is to provide you with a variety of methods to flash in situ SPI BIOS chips, as found on selected motherboards.

Prerequisites

It is assumed that you are running a GNU/Linux-libre operating system. We recommend to run GNU Guix System – alternatively, install the GNU Guix package manager.

Get the Sources

Use Git to clone the project’s sources:

    $ git clone git://zerocat.org/zerocat/projects/zerocat-flash-access

Change into the project’s documentation folder:

    $ cd zerocat-flash-access/doc/

Study this README.md to get started:

    $ cat ../doc/README.md

Paths

All paths within the documentation are relative to the location of the documentation source files, which are located in this project’s doc/ folder.

Tags

Versions are tagged according to the following pattern:

    v<major>.<minor>.<revision>

A tag should be annotated with related change log entries.

The first tag should be: v0.0.0

To checkout a version tag, run:

    git checkout vx.x.x

However, this should be optional.
Using the tip of branch master should be just fine.

Project Environment

Use GNU Make to create a dedicated profile, and an up-to-date profile generation. This allows you to match your environment to the one used by Zerocat, thus yielding for bit-identical results:

    $ make -C ../guix pull

Checkout the profile generation, instantiate channels, create a pure shell that provides nothing but prerequisites:

    $ make -C ../guix environment

To confirm that your project environment is properly set up, run:

    [env]$ make -C ../guix usage

Invocations of make to generate the documentation, compile the sources, etc., should be done from this project environment, only.

To restore the initial environment, later on, when you are done with this project, type:

    [env]$ exit

To remove this project’s handy guix profile, type:

    $ make -C ../guix clean

This will remove symlinks only. If you want to remove the profile from your system, run the GNU Guix Garbage Collector.

To list all available targets, type:

    $ make -C ../guix help

Make Documentation from Project’s Environment

To build the documentation, type:

    [env]$ make -C ../doc

The terminal output should provide a shortcut to the index.html file of the generated HTML documentation. Open this file with your favorite browser.

To get a full list of available targets, type:

    [env]$ make -C ../doc help

To clean-up, type:

    [env]$ make -C ../doc clean

Make Documentation from System’s Shell

To build the documentation in one go, type:

    $ echo "make -C ../doc" | make -C ../guix environment

Invocation of gschem

A gschem resource file gafrc is located in folder gschem/, thus gschem should be invoked fromout that folder:

    $ echo "cd ../gschem/ && gschem && cd -" | make -C guix environment
Section #../doc/CONTRIBUTING.md

Contributing

Documentation Files

Documentation source files are written in markdown syntax. They should carry their individual copyright and license notices right below the title giving headline, e.g.:

    <Title-of-Document>
    ===================

    Copyright (C) <Year>  <Name-of-Author> <Email-Address>  

    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
    Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
    "GNU Free Documentation License".

    <Other-Headline>
    ----------------

    ...content...

The generated documentation carries a license notice right at top on its title page, with copyright statements generated from git log output.

Sections of the generated documentation are build from selected markdown source files, with their individual copyright and license notice stripped.

In order to enrich the generated documentation ...

... and adapt ../doc/Makefile to produce nice output.

In case more tools are needed, don't forget to update ../guix/manifest0.scm.

Images

To make your image look nice within the documentation, select a landscape layout of 16:9 aspect ratio.

Use ImageMagick to prepare your image, e.g.:

If your image is big, reduce it to a maximal width of 2000 pixel:

    mogrify -resize 2000x <image>

Please clean image files from metadata, before committing, i.e.:

    mogrify -strip <image>

If you embed your image into a markdown documentation file, use this syntax:

   ![<path/to/image>][]

   [<path/to/image>]:     <path/to/image>     "title message"

or alternatly:

   ![<path/to/image>][my-image-shortcut]

   [my-image-shortcut]:   <path/to/image>     "title message"

These patterns will guarantee that <img> tags will have their src, alt and title attributes properly set within the html output.

Gschem Schematics

Within your circuit schematic, you can use specific texts as placeholder objects. They will be replaced with generated values by the documentation build process. When used within the informational fields of a titleblock, use the specified sizes and alignments:

In case you are going to embed images, make sure to use a relative path. Per default, gschem uses absolute paths that might reveal a private username or folder. You can use nano to edit your schematics outside of gschem.

Code Files

Please use this license header for code source files:

    Zerocat Flash Access --- Interfacing BIOS Chips in Hardware Protection Mode

    Copyright (C) <Year>  <Name-of-Author> <Email-Address>

    This file is part of Zerocat Flash Access.

    Zerocat Flash Access is free software: you can redistribute it
    and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
    License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either
    version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
    version.

    Zerocat Flash Access is distributed in the hope that it will be
    useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
    warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with Zerocat Flash Access.
    If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Shell Scripts

If you intend to write shell scripts, use this skeleton to make them work for GNU Guix:

    #!/bin/sh

    # Re-exec if we are not using Bash or are using Bash in POSIX mode.
    if [ -z "$BASH" ] || [ "$BASH" = "/bin/sh" ]; then
      bash=`command -v bash`
      if [ -z "$bash" ]; then
        echo "Couldn't find Bash, sorry!"
        exit 1
      else
        exec "$bash" "$0" "$@"
      fi
    fi

    # We're using Bash now.
    set -o errexit
    set -o nounset
    set -o pipefail

    # Your code goes here ...

ChangeLog

Update ../doc/CHANGES.md and list your contributions.

You can use git shortlog to get a starting point for your edit.

Section #../doc/COPYING.md

Copying

Zerocat Flash Access ships copyrighted work.

Zerocat Flash Access is free software. It makes use of free software licenses as recognized by Free Software Foundation (FSF), and should be freely distributable:

Files located in folder hardware/, if available, describe hardware of a free design, licensed under:

Authorship, copyright and license information may be provided in more detail on a per-folder and/or per-file basis. Check the sources.

Please report a bug if you find the distribution hindered.
See Zerocat Website for contact information.

Section #../doc/CHANGES.md

CHANGES

Change Log

Change Logs can be created with:

    git shortlog vx.x.x..HEAD | tac | sed -r -e '1d; s/^[ ]*/* /; $d;' -

Recent Changes

v0.4.3

v0.4.2

v0.4.1

v0.4.0

v0.3.3

v0.3.2

v0.3.1

v0.3.0

v0.2.1

v0.2.0

v0.1.0

v0.0.0

February of 2022: The project starts with essential content.

Section #../doc/CREDITS.md

CREDITS

This documentation comes with special thanks to ...

Section #../doc/t430-spi-chip-replacement.md

T430 SPI Chip Replacement

One SPI chip of a client’s T430 happened to be damaged and needed to be replaced. The required SOIC8 form factor was not available, thus a tiny XWSON8 was used as drop-in.

Notices

Photo Documentation

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9663.JPG

Image 1(13): Fix board onto the table, free up chips from foil.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9666.JPG

Image 2(13): Broken chip successfully removed. Too much heat melted foil, burned table.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9674.JPG

Image 3(13): In the background: Tool and chip that has been removed.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9680.JPG

Image 4(13): New XWSON chip waiting to be placed at U99 socket.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9685.JPG

Image 5(13): Glue chip into place, using hot glue.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9699.JPG

Image 6(13): Add solder to board’s SPI pads.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9701.JPG

Image 7(13): Apply mirrored connections, one by one.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9715.JPG

Image 8(13): All connections done, center pad filled with solder.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9716.JPG

Image 9(13): Add wires to jumper socket. Bent down wires, very caryfully.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9720.JPG

Image 10(13): Repair foil with tape.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9724.JPG

Image 11(13): Remove foil that became too hot, use tape to protect board and wires.

../images/t430-repair/DSCN9730.JPG

Image 12(13): Attach chipflasher to new connector.

../images/t430-repair/screenshot-20220203-133420.png

Image 13(13): Probe chip... Success!

Section #../doc/t430-spi-flash-connector.md

T430 SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your T430 machine, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go.

The ROM used in this how-to has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines

Equipment and Tools

Circuit Schematic

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the T430 mainboard, only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

../gschem/t430-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

T430 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(5): Status Quo

../gschem/t430-spi-flash-connector-page02.sch.png

T430 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 2(5): Blocking Caps

../gschem/t430-spi-flash-connector-page03.sch.png

T430 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 3(5): Guessed Signal Sources

../gschem/t430-spi-flash-connector-page04.sch.png

T430 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 4(5): Write Protection Network

../gschem/t430-spi-flash-connector-page05.sch.png

T430 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 5(5): SPI Flash Connector

Photo Documentation

../images/t430/DSCN9486.JPG

Image 1(26): Get prepared with new parts.

../images/t430/DSCN9477.JPG

Image 2(26): Locate spare place below cover.

../images/t430/DSCN9490.JPG

Image 3(26): Glue connector into place using hot glue, use angled pinheader as handle.

../images/t430/DSCN9496.JPG

Image 4(26): Use not as much glue as we did!

../images/t430/DSCN9514.JPG

Image 5(26): Locate devices U49, U99 and J27.

../images/t430/DSCN9520.JPG

Image 6(26): Locate J27 on bottom side.

../images/t430/DSCN9528.JPG

Image 7(26): Fill J27 vias with solder.

../images/t430/DSCN9531.JPG

Image 8(26): Make sure J27 vias are properly filled on top side as well.

../images/t430/DSCN9542.JPG

Image 9(26): Route #WP Pins to J27:7, which seems to be unused.

../images/t430/DSCN9546.JPG

Image 10(26): Flatten wires. Wires are 0.25mm CuL with clear varnish isolation.

../images/t430/DSCN9548.JPG

Image 11(26): Cover routes and protect them.

../images/t430/DSCN9504.JPG

Image 12(26): Cut foil on bottom side, carefully.

../images/t430/DSCN9538.JPG

Image 13(26): Prepare glued connector with solder.

../images/t430/DSCN9540.JPG

Image 14(26): Add wires to J27 on bottom side.

../images/t430/DSCN9551.JPG

Image 15(26): Route wires from J27 to new connector. See table for pinout.

../images/t430/DSCN9555.JPG

Image 16(26): Flatten wires.

../images/t430/DSCN9563.JPG

Image 17(26): Cover routes, repair foil.

../images/t430/DSCN9567.JPG

Image 18(26): Mount PCB back into cage.

../images/t430/DSCN9583.JPG

Image 19(26): Use connector to flash bottom 8MB chip.

../images/t430/DSCN9581.JPG

Image 20(26): Use connector to flash top 4MB chip.

../images/t430/DSCN9587.JPG

Image 21(26): Boot the machine once, to allow your GbE controller to copy its configuration data.

../images/t430/DSCN9581.JPG (Register Access)

Image 22(26): Attach top 4MB chip again, ...

../images/t430/screenshot-20220122-094719.png

Image 23(26): ... then set register bits to configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/t430/DSCN9583.JPG (Register Access)

Image 24(26): Attach bottom 8MB chip again, ...

../images/t430/screenshot-20220122-093813.png

Image 25(26): ... then as well set register bits to configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/t430/DSCN9585.JPG

Image 26(26): Bridge Pin9 and Pin10, thus activating HPM. Your machine will boot with a protected ROM.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_10x1 Pinout Table with J27 (Image 15)
    ===============================================

    J27   Pin    Function   Comment
    ---   ---    --------   -----------------------
      1     1    #HOLD1     leftmost on image
      4     2    +3.3V
      6     3    #HOLD0
      8     4    SCL
     10     5    MOSI
      2     6    #CS1
      5     7    MISO
      3     8    #CS0
      7     9    #WP
      9    10    GND        rightmost on image

Notices

Section #../doc/t530-spi-flash-connector.md

T530 SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your T530 machine, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go.

The ROM of the depicted T530 has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines.

Make sure to remove DC Power before attaching to the SPI flash connector.

Equipment and Tools

Circuit Schematic

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the T530 mainboard, only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

Terms top side and bottom side refer to the orientation of the motherboard being properly mounted into the laptop.

../gschem/t530-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

T530 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(1): Status Quo + SPI Flash Connector + Guessed System Signals

Photo Documentation

../images/t530/IMG<em>0723.JPG

Image 1(19): Find place for the new connector below RAM cover.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0725.JPG

Image 2(19): Protect mainboard surface with tape.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0729.JPG

Image 3(19): Glue connector into place.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0737.JPG

Image 4(19): Remove handle, dismantel mainboard, add solder.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0741.JPG

Image 5(19): Prepare selected pins of SPI chips with solder.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0767.JPG

Image 6(19): Solder four wires to SPI2, route them to other side through Goldfinger GF1 cutout.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0770.JPG

Image 7(19): Flip board to other side, route wires from SPI2 to connector.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0780.JPG

Image 8(19): Flatten wires carefully.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0786.JPG

Image 9(19): Solder wires to SPI1, route them to other side.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0788.JPG

Image 10(19): Flatten wires, again carefully.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0792.JPG

Image 11(19): Cover SPI chips with tape.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0798.JPG

Image 12(19): Flip board to other side, route wires to connector, use tape to fix and protect them.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0805.JPG

Image 13(19): Assemble board into chassis, see how well the connector fits into place.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0806.JPG

Image 14(19): Configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) for bottom chip SPI1 ...

../images/t530/screenshot-20220423-175709.png

Image 15(19): ... by setting corresponding bits of its Status Register.

../images/t530/IMG<em>0814.JPG

Image 16(19): ... as well as for top chip SPI2 ...

../images/t530/screenshot-20220423-175843.png

Image 17(19): ... by setting corresponding bits of its Status Register.

../images/t530/IMG</em>0821.JPG

Image 18(19): Finally, enable HPM via Jumper.

../images/t530/IMG_0859.JPG

Image 19(19): The machine now boots with protected firmware.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_10x1 Pinout Table       (Image 13)
    ============================================

    Pin     Function      Comment
    ---     --------      ----------------------
      1     #HOLD1        top/left on image
      2     +3.3V
      3     #HOLD0
      4     SCL
      5     MOSI
      6     #CS1
      7     MISO
      8     #CS0
      9     #WP
     10     GND           bottom/right on image

Notices

Section #../doc/t60-spi-flash-connector.md

T60 SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your T60 machine, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go.

The ROM used in this how-to has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines

Equipment and Tools

Circuit Schematic (T60 with ATI GPU)

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the T60 mainboard (with ATI GPU), only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

Terms top side and bottom side refer to the orientation of the motherboard being properly mounted into the laptop.

../gschem/t60-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

T60 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(3): Status Quo + Connector

../gschem/t60-spi-flash-connector-page02.sch.png

T60 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 2(3): Signal Sources

../gschem/t60-spi-flash-connector-page03.sch.png

T60 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 3(3): SPI Power

Photo Documentation (T60 with ATI GPU)

../images/t60/IMG<em>0867.JPG

Image 1(15): Find a place for new SPI connector in unused slot of Modem Daughter Card.

../images/t60/IMG</em>0875.JPG

Image 2(15): Get prepared with new parts.

../images/t60/IMG<em>0885.JPG

Image 3(15): Glue connector onto bottom side of daughter card, use pinheader as handle and distance keeper.

../images/t60/IMG</em>0899.JPG

Image 4(15): Mount daughter card into place as a test.

../images/t60/DSCF0071.JPG

Image 5(15): Route wires along chip edges towards daughter card.

../images/t60/DSCF0075.JPG

Image 6(15): Mount motherboard back into cage.

../images/t60/DSCF0081.JPG

Image 7(15): Turn daughter card into proper position.

../images/t60/DSCF0091.JPG

Image 8(15): Fix daughter card with screws.

../images/t60/DSCF0098.JPG

Image 9(15): Apply heatsink.

../images/t60/DSCF0116.JPG

Image 10(15): Finish mounting.

../images/t60/DSCF0127.JPG

Image 11(15): Attach chipflasher.

../images/t60/screenshot-20220519-181935.png

Image 12(15): Start `kick2` as of *v0.6.7*, then probe chip.

../images/t60/screenshot-20220519-182042.png

Image 13(15): Configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/t60/DSCF0139.png

Image 14(15): Set jumper in order to enable HPM.

../images/t60/DSCF0142.JPG

Image 15(15): The laptop now boots with protected firmware.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_8x1 Pinout Table       (Image 4)
    ==========================================

    Pin     Function      Comment
    ---     --------      --------------------
      8     GND           top/right on image
      7     #WP
      6     #CS
      5     MISO
      4     MOSI
      3     SCL
      2     #HOLD
      1     +3.3V         bottom/left on image

Photo Documentation (T60 with Intel GPU only)

This mainboard provides more space, as it lacks the ATI GPU and related power parts. Put protective tape on the flat mainboard area and glue the connector on top of it. See images for alternate routing.

../images/t60/DSCF0227.JPG

Image 1(2): Alternate route and place for SPI Flash Connector.

../images/t60/DSCF0247.JPG

Image 2(2): Keyboard attached, HPM Jumper applied.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_8x1 Pinout Table       (Image 2)
    ==========================================

    Pin     Function      Comment
    ---     --------      --------------------
      8     GND           top/left on image
      7     #WP
      6     #CS
      5     MISO
      4     MOSI
      3     SCL
      2     #HOLD
      1     +3.3V         bottom/right on image

Notices

Section #../doc/unused-sockets.md

Unused Sockets

Which mainboards offer unused sockets, close to their SPI Flash?

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad W530

Unused pads available, do they provide access to SPI Flash?

../images/w530/DSCN9416.JPG

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad W530

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad T530

This motherboard does not offer unused sockets for SPI Flash Pinheaders.

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad T430

This motherboard offers unused through-hole sockets for SPI Flash Pinheaders.

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad T520/T520i

This motherboard offers an unused through-hole socket for an SPI Flash Pinheader: J100

../images/t520i/DSCN9350.JPG

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad T520i

SPI Flash Environment of a ThinkPad X1 Carbon Gen1

No unused through-hole for an SPI Flash Pinheader available.

Section #../doc/x200-spi-flash-connector.md

X200 SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your ThinkPad X200, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go. The firmware of the X200, used in this how-to, has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines

Tools and Materials

Circuit Schematic

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the X200 mainboard, only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

Terms top side and bottom side refer to the orientation of the motherboard being properly mounted into the laptop.

../images/x200/IMG_2368.JPG

X200: SPI Flash on top side

../gschem/x200-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

X220 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(1): Status Quo + SPI Flash Connector + Guessed System Signals

Photo Documentation X200

../images/x200/IMG<em>2380.JPG

Image 1(15): Find a good place for new connector and its jumper.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2389.JPG

Image 2(15): Glue connector into place, remove in excess glue later on.

../images/x200/IMG<em>2393.JPG

Image 3(15): Prepare jumper, first bent short pins, then solder.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2400.JPG

Image 4(15): Locate R400.

../images/x200/IMG<em>2402.JPG

Image 5(15): Connect R400 to SPI Flash Connector, pin 5.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2405.JPG

Image 6(15): Add next three wires to SPI Flash, pins 1, 2 and 7.

../images/x200/IMG<em>2410.JPG

Image 7(15): Add four more wires to pins 9, 10, 15 and 16.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2411.JPG

Image 8(15): Start routing towards SPI Flash Connector, route across chip to get solid support.

../images/x200/IMG<em>2414.JPG

Image 9(15): Finalize routing, route around copper screw areas.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2418.JPG

Image 10(15): Reapply protective foil, cut where required. Add space for palm rest support along blue line.

../images/x200/IMG<em>2420.JPG

Image 11(15): Cover routed wires with tape.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2429.JPG

Image 12(15): Access SPI Flash via connector.

../images/x200/screenshot-20221206-204239.png

Image 13(15): Use Chipflasher to configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/x200/IMG<em>2434.JPG

Image 14(15): Protect your firmware: Apply jumper in order to activate HPM.

../images/x200/IMG</em>2437.JPG

Image 15(15): Successful boot test with firmware in HPM.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_8x1 Pinout Table, Image 14
    ==============================================

    Pin     Function    Comment
    ---     --------    --------------------------
      8     GND         most left, view from edge
      7     #WP
      6     #CS
      5     MISO
      4     MOSI
      3     SCLK
      2     #HOLD
      1     +3.3V       most right, view from edge

Notices

Section #../doc/x220-spi-flash-connector.md

X220 SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your X220 machine, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go.

The ROM used in this how-to has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines

Equipment and Tools

Circuit Schematic

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the X220 mainboard, only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

Terms top side and bottom side refer to the orientation of the motherboard being properly mounted into the laptop.

../gschem/x220-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

X220 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(2): Status Quo + SPI Flash Connector + Guessed System Signals

../gschem/x220-spi-flash-connector-page02.sch.png

X220 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 2(2): SPI Power Supply

Photo Documentation

../images/x220/IMG<em>0037.JPG

Image 1(14): Locate space for new connector and its jumper.

../images/x220/IMG</em>0042.JPG

Image 2(14): Use hot glue to fix new connector.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0045.JPG

Image 3(14): Remove palm rest and bezel.

../images/x220/IMG</em>0069.JPG

Image 4(14): Free up systemboard, remove protection foil of BIOS chips.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0076.JPG

Image 5(14): Solder first wire to R430.

../images/x220/IMG</em>0079.JPG

Image 6(14): Route wire nicely to new connector, use tape to fix it.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0084.JPG

Image 7(14): Solder next wires to: SPI1:4, SPI1:3, SPI1:1

../images/x220/IMG</em>0086.JPG

Image 8(14): Route wires across chip case to new connector.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0093.JPG

Image 9(14): Solder next wires to: SPI1:5, SPI1:6, SPI1:7, SPI1:8

../images/x220/IMG</em>0094.JPG

Image 10(14): Again, route wires across chip towards connector.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0107.JPG

Image 11(14): Cover chips and routed wires with protection foil. Use tape to repair.

../images/x220/IMG</em>0112.JPG

Image 12(14): Place systemboard into chassis, cover connector with tape.

../images/x220/IMG<em>0115.JPG

Image 13(14): Reapply bezel and palm rest.

../images/x220/IMG</em>0118.JPG

Image 14(14): Use Chipflasher to flash Zerocat ROM, then boot once, then apply HPM register bits, then set jumper across connector pins 10 and 9. Your machine will then boot with protected firmware.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_10x1 Pinout Table   (Image 13)
    ========================================

    Pin     Function    Comment
    ---     --------    --------------------
     10     GND         top/right on image
      9     #WP
      8     #CS0
      7     MISO
      6     -
      5     MOSI
      4     SCL
      3     #HOLD0
      2     +3.3V
      1     -           bottom/left on image

Notices

Section #../doc/x230-x230t-spi-flash-connector.md

X230/X230t SPI Flash Connector

This how-to helps you to add an SPI flash connector to your X230/X230t machine, and to apply Hardware Protection Mode (HPM) in the same go.

The ROM used in this how-to has been created with: Zerocat Coreboot Machines

Equipment and Tools

Circuit Schematic X230

Schematics are based on visual and instrumental examination of the X230 mainboard, only. Some connections have been guessed and might be wrong.

Terms top side and bottom side refer to the orientation of the motherboard being properly mounted into the laptop.

../gschem/x230-spi-flash-connector-page01.sch.png

X230 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 1(2): Status Quo + SPI Flash Connector + Guessed System Signals

../gschem/x230-spi-flash-connector-page02.sch.png

X230 SPI Flash Connector Schematic, Page 2(2): SPI Power

Photo Documentation X230

../images/x230/DSCN9786.JPG

Image 1(32): Lift keyboard and locate space for new connector with jumper attached.

../images/x230/DSCN9803.JPG

Image 2(32): Glue connector with hot glue, use angled pinheader as handle.

../images/x230/DSCN9805.JPG

Image 3(32): Dismantel motherboard.

../images/x230/DSCN9810.JPG

Image 4(32): Lift adhesive protection foil, carefully.

../images/x230/DSCN9854.JPG

Image 5(32): Locate SPI1, SPI2, R1377, R1378 and R122.

../images/x230/DSCN9860.JPG

Image 6(32): Apply fresh solder to R1377 and R1378; solder first wire to R122 carefully.

../images/x230/DSCN9876.JPG

Image 7(32): Add wires to R1377 and R1378.

../images/x230/DSCN9877.JPG

Image 8(32): Flatten wires, secure them with adhesive tape.

../images/x230/DSCN9882.JPG

Image 9(32): Cut foil like 3 centimeters.

../images/x230/DSCN9884.JPG

Image 10(32): Secure cut with tape, such that it will not grow.

../images/x230/DSCN9886.JPG

Image 11(32): Apply fresh solder to new connector.

../images/x230/DSCN9888.JPG

Image 12(32): Route first three wires.

../images/x230/DSCN9891.JPG

Image 13(32): Add power wires to chip pins.

../images/x230/DSCN9895.JPG

Image 14(32): Add remaining wires to chip pins.

../images/x230/DSCN9900.JPG

Image 15(32): Flatten wires carefully, route them to the connector.

../images/x230/DSCN9905.JPG

Image 16(32): Secure wires with tape.

../images/x230/DSCN9908.JPG

Image 17(32): Repair foil.

../images/x230/DSCN9928.JPG

Image 18(32): Fit motherboard back into chassis.

../images/x230/DSCN9929.JPG

Image 19(32): Apply palm rest and bezel.

../images/x230/DSCN9943.JPG

Image 21(32): Probe and flash lower chip with newly created ROM (lower 8MB binary).

../images/x230/DSCN9949.JPG

Image 22(32): Probe and flash upper chip with newly created ROM (upper 4MB binary).

../images/x230/DSCN9942.JPG

Image 20(32): Boot once to allow the GbE Controller to copy its configuration data.

../images/x230/DSCN9949.JPG

Image 25(32): Access upper chip again, ...

../images/x230/screenshot-20220215-093458.png

Image 24(32): ... and configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/x230/DSCN9943.JPG

Image 23(32): Access lower chip again, ...

../images/x230/screenshot-20220215-093251.png

Image 26(32): ... and configure Hardware Protection Mode (HPM).

../images/x230/DSCN9956.JPG

Image 27(32): Activate HPM with jumper.

../images/x230/DSCN9958.JPG

Image 28(32): Make sure the jumper will not interfere with the trackpoint case.

../images/x230/DSCN9963.JPG

Image 29(32): Your X230 machine now boots with protected ROM.

Photo Documentation X230t

../images/x230t/IMG<em>1619.JPG

Image 30(32): Very similar mainboard.

../images/x230t/IMG</em>1628.JPG

Image 31(32): No need to dismantel motherboard, route wires below keyboard support.

../images/x230t/IMG_1632.JPG

Image 32(32): Your X230t machine now boots with protected ROM.

Connector Pinout Table

    Connector_10x1 Pinout Table (Image 15)
    ======================================

    Pin     Function    Comment
    ---     --------    ------------------
     10     GND         leftmost on image
      9     #WP
      8     #CS0
      7     MISO
      6     #CS1
      5     MOSI
      4     SCL
      3     #HOLD0
      2     +3.3V
      1     #HOLD1      rightmost on image

Notices

Section #../doc/GNU-FDL.md

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

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This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

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Section #../doc/GNU-GPL.md

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

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3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.

A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.

"Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

7. Additional Terms.

"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

8. Termination.

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

11. Patents.

A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

14. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

16. Limitation of Liability.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands \show w' and \show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.